ANAU (Anav; Heb. מן הענוים), ancient Italian family. Most of its members lived in Rome, although some moved to other towns in Italy. According to family tradition, the Anaus were descended from one of four aristocratic families of Jerusalem whom Titus brought from Jerusalem to Rome after the destruction of the Temple. It is the first Jewish family living in Rome to be known by a surname, which is found also in the Italian forms Delli Mansi, Delli Piatelli, or Umano. Branches of the Anau family are the ancient Roman Bozecco family, and the Min ha-Keneset (מן הכנסת) or Mi-Bet El (מבית אל; De Synagoga) families. The well-known Tuscan families of Da Pisa, Da San Miniato, and Da Tivoli who engaged in loan banking toward the end of the 14th century were also offshoots of the Anau family. The accompanying genealogical chart indicates the main ramifications of the family and its most distinguished members between the 9th and 14th centuries. Especially noteworthy was JEHIEL B. ABRAHAM (d. 1070), head of the yeshivah of Rome and liturgical poet. The most important of his sons, nathan b. jehiel , was author of the Arukh. Jehiel's other two sons were DANIEL BEN JEHIEL (d. before 1101), teacher in the yeshivah of Rome, liturgical poet, and commentator on the Mishnah, and ABRAHAM BEN JEHIEL, teacher in the yeshivah of Rome. He founded a synagogue in Rome in 1101 with his brother Nathan. DANIEL (12th century), rabbi, is mentioned by benjamin of Tudela (c. 1159) as a leader of the Jewish community of Rome. JEHIEL, a nephew or grandson of Nathan B. Jehiel, is described by Benjamin of Tudela as a leader of the community and major domo of Pope Alexander III. BENJAMIN and ABRAHAM BEN JEHIEL (beginning of the 13th century) were both physicians and talmudists. JUDAH B. BENJAMIN anav (d. after 1280) was a talmudist and liturgical poet. One of the most eminent members of the family was BENJAMIN B. ABRAHAM anav (mid-13th century), scholar and poet, one of the most versatile scholars of his day. MOSES BEN ABRAHAM, liturgical poet, wrote two seliḥot expressing his consternation at the condemnation of the Talmud (1240). His younger brother ZEDEKIAH B. ABRAHAM anav (1225–1297), a noted talmudist, was author of the halakhic compendium, Shibbolei ha-Leket. JEHIEL B. JEKUTHIEL anav (second half of the 13th century), liturgical poet, ethical writer, and copyist, was author of the popular ethical work Beit Middot (later published as Ma'alot ha-Middot). Significant members of the family in later generations included ABRAHAM BEN JACOB ANAV (18th century), poet and rabbi in Rome, and PHINEHAS ḤAI anau (known as Felice Umano; 1693–1768), rabbi in Ferrara. SALVATORE was active in the Italian Risorgimento and a member of the provisional government at Ferrara in 1848 and a year later in Rome. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Milano, Italia, index; Roth, Italy, index; Vogelstein-Rieger, 1 (1896), index. (Attilio Milano)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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